Горячие Новости

?sN�N�??. ??N�??N???N??????� ????N�?????� ?? ???�??N?N??�N??????? ???�N�?�??N�????

???�N�?�?�?? ?? ???????�N�?�N� 17, 18, 19

??N�?�??, ??N� ?? ?sN�N�??N?, ?? ?s?�N�N�?� a�� ???� N�?????????� ???�N??�???? N?N�?�N�?????? ?�???�???????????? N?N�N�????N�?�?�N? ???�N�?�N�N?N�?�, ??N�???�N�????N??�????N?N? ?�??N�????N�?�N�???? ???� N?N�?�???� ?????�??N????????? ????N�????N????????? N????�??N�?� ?? 1206 ??????N?. ?�??N�??N�?�??, ???? N�??????, ???�?? N?N�?�N�N? ?s?�N�N�????, ????N�???? ???�?�N�???�?�N?N? ??N�???�?????�, ?�?�??????N???N?, ?s?�N�N�?�, ?s?�N�?� ?? ????????N? a�� ?�?�??????N???N?. ?? ????N?N�N�???�?????�N? N�?�N�?�?� ?????�N�??N�?� N?N�???�?�N�??N? ????N??�?� ???�N�?�N�N?N�?� ??N�?�????N?N�N?, N�N�?? ???� ?s?�N�?�??N�?????????? N�???�???�, ????N???N� ???�?�???�?????� ?�?�??N?N??�N???????.
?� N??�N�N??�?�???? ?�N�??N????�??N�??N�?????�???????? ?? ?????�N�??N�???? ???�?�NZN?N�N�??N�?????�???????? ?????????� A�?Y?�??N?N�???????? ?�N�??N???N?????N� ????N??�?�?�??????A� (???�???�N�?�?�N?N?N�???? A�?????�N?N�?�??, 1987 ??.) ??.?Y?�N?N�???�?�???�N????�, ????N???N?N�????N??�???? ??N?N??�?�???????�????NZ, ?????�???? N????�?�?�N�N?, ??N?NZ ?�???�??N?, N�??N�?�?�??: A�???�?????� ?�???�N?N????� ?�N�??N???N??????� ????N??�?�?�?????� ?sN�N�???� ???�N�?�?�?????�?�??N?N? ?? ??N�?�?????�?? ?s?�N�?� (?�?�??????N?????) ?? ??N�?�???????� ???�???�. ?� 1475 ??????N? ?�???�N?N? ??N�???�?????�?�?? 46 N�N�N?N?N� ?�N�??N???, N�N�?? N???N?N�?�???�N??�?? 65% ???�N??�?�?�????N?. ?� ????N�?????� ?�N�?�?? ???�N?N?N�???? ?�N�??N???N?????N� N�?�N�?????�??, ???� ??????N� N?N�?�?�?�?�?? 7. ???�???�N? ??N�?�????N?N? (???� N?N�?�?�?�??N???N�) N�?�N�??????N? ??N?N�?� ???�N�????N?. ?�?� N?N�?�??N� N???N�?�N??�??N� ??????????N�??N??�?�????N�???? N�?�N�???�N�?�????, ?? ?? N�???? N�??N??�?� N�?�N�???�N�????, ???�N�??N�?????�????N�?? VIII ???�??????. ?? N�?�?? ?�?�: A�??N�??N????�-N?N�?�N�???�???�N� ?�???�?? ?? N??�?????? ?s?�N�?�, ?� ????????N? ??N�???�N�???�NZN�?�?? ?�N�??N???N??????? ?�?�??????N�?� ??N�??N�???????�??N?N? ????N??�?�N?N�N?N?N? ?�?� ????N�????N??????? N�?�N�N�????. ???�??, ?? XIII — XIV ????. ???� ?�?�N�?�??N? ????N�N?, ????N?N�??N�???�?� ?�?�??N?N??�N??????? ??N�?�????N?N�?? ???�N�?�?�?????�?�?�N?N? ?�N�??N???N????�N? N??�???�?????�. ?� N??�N�?�???????� XIV ??. ?�?� ???�???�N??�?? ???�??N�??????N�?�?�N??????? N?N�?�?????? ???�N? ?�?�N�??N�N� ??N� ???�?�?�?????? N�?�N�?�N�. ?zN� N?N�???? N??�???�????N� ???? ???�N???N� ?????�?? ????N??�?? ???�??N�??????N�?�?�N????�N? N?N�?�???� ??????N� ?�?�N�?? ?? N�?�N�N�N�?� ???�?�?�??N?????N� N�?�N�????N?N?????. ?YN�??N?N�N�?�??N?N�???? ???�?�??N? ?�N�??N???N????????? N�?�N�?????�???? ?�N�?�?? ?�?�N?N�N�???�???? ?�N�??N???N????????? ?�???�N�???? ???????�????, ????N�??N�N�?� ???� N???N�N�?�?????�??N?N?. ?� ????N??�?�???????� N?N�???�?�N�??N? N�?�?????? ?�N�??N???N??????? N??�???�????N� ???�?�N�???�?�N�N?N? ?s?�N�?�??N�????????A�. ?s?�N�?�??N�???????? a�� ??N�?? ?�N� ??????N????�?�, ?�!
?? N�?�???�N�N? ???�N�?�N�????N?N? ?? ???�N?N�?????? N?N�?�N�N??� A�??N�??N???N??????� ?????�N�N�?�?�N� N?N�?�?????�???�??????N�?? ????N�???????? ????N�?�????N� XIV — XVIII ????.A� ?�N???????N????????? ??N?N??�?�???????�N�?�?�N? ??. ?�?�N????�????N�?� (??N?N�??N�??????-N�???�???�??????N�?�N??????? ?�N?N�???�?� ???? ??N�??.?????�, ??????. 2, 1987??.), ?????� ???? ??????N?N�???�?�N� N???N?N�?�??N? ?????????�?????? ?�?�N?N�N�????????: A�?� ???�????N�??N�N�N� ????N�?????�N� (?s???�??, ?�N???????, ??N�?�????N??�?�?? ?? ??N�.) N?N?N�?�N?N�???????�?�?? ???? ?????� [?�N�??N???N?????N�] ?????�N�N�?�?�?� a�� ???? ??????????N? ?? ??N�?�???�?�?�N� N???N�?�???�?�?????????? ????N�?????� ?? ?�?� ?�???? N?N�?�???�????. ??N�??N???N??????� ????N�????N??????� ?????�N�N�?�?�N� ?�?�???????�?�?? ???�N�N�???? ??N�??N?N�N�?�??N?N�???? ???�?�??N? N???N�?�???�?�????N????? (?????� ?�N�?�?? ?�N�??N???N??????�, ???? ???�?�???�????NZ, ???�??N�??????N�?�?�N???N�?� N?????N�N??�?�????N?) ?? N�?�??N�N�???? ????N�?????�, ??N�??N�?�?? ??????????, ?�???�?�?� N??�??????, N?N�??N�???????? ?????? ???????�?? ??N�????N�???�N�N? ?? ????N�????N???????N? N�N�????N?. ??N�??N???N????�N? ???�??N�?�??N?, ?? N�???? N??�N?N�?�?�, ?�N??�?? ?????� N?N?N�?�N?N�???????�?�?� ?? ?????�????????, ?????????????� ???� ???�N�?�?�????N�???�?�?� ???�?????�N�N�??N�?�N??????? N�?�??N�N� ?????�N�N�?�?�?�, ?� N????�N�?�?�?�N?N? ???? ???�??N�?�???�?�????NZ ?? ?�??????????N?N�N�?�N�????????-N?????????????N�?�N???????N? N�?�??N�N�N? ????N�?????� (?s?�???�???�N�, ???�?�?????�N�), ??????N�????N?N?N?N? N?N??�??????N??? N�?�?�N??�N�?� (?? ?s?�???�??N�?� ???�??N�?�??N? ???� ?????�??N�N??�??????N?N�??; ?? ???�?�????N�?� ???�???�??N�??N�, ???????�N? N?N�?�?�N?N?). ?s???�N�N�?�?�N�, N�?�N??????�???�?�????N�?� ?? ??N�?�???�?�?�N� N???N�?�???�?�?????????? ????N�?????�, N? N�??N�???? ?�N�?�????N? N�?�N�?�??N�?�N�?� ?? ???�??N�????N?N�?? ?�?�N?N�N�???????? ?�N�?�??, ?? N?????NZ ??N�?�N�?�??N?, ????N?N� N�????????. ?YN�?? ?�?�???�N�??N�N� N�?�N�N�??N�??N�???�?�N???N�N� ????N�?�????N�?�????N?N� (???�??N�?????�N�, ???? ?�N????????�) ?????�N�N�?�?� N???N?N�??N??� ???� ??????????-????N?N� ?????????�N????? ???�??????N�N�, ???? ???� ???� ??N?NZ ???�????N? N???N�?�???�?�?????????? ????N�?????�, ???�N�?�?�?�?�?�N???N�N� N??�??N� ?? ????????????-????N?N� ??N�??N??�?????? N? ?�??????N?N�???�???????? ???????????�??N�???? a�� N�?�N�??????N?NZA�.
??N�?�??, ???� N????�?�?�?????????? ??N�N??� ?? N�??N�????N�?�N�????, ????N??�?�?????????�????N�N� ?Y?�N?N�???�?�???�N???????, N?N�?�????????N�N?N? N?N?????, N�N�?? ?? ?s?�N�?� ???�?�??N�?? ?�N�??N???N????�N? A�N�?????????�N? ?�?�N?N�N�???????�A� N? N�?�N�?????�???? ?z???�?????�N??� ????N�N�N�N�?� (?????�?????� ?sN�?�N?N�??N�?�?�N?), ??N?N�?� ???�N�????N??� (????N?N�?????? ???�N�????N??�), ?�N�??????N�?� ?�N?N??�????N�??N�?� (?�N�??????N�??N? ?YN�??N????�N�??N�?�?�N?), ??N?N�?� ??N�?�???�????N??� (????N?N�?????? ??N�?�N�?�????N??�), ?z???�?????�N??� ??N?N�???�N�?�?�?�???� (?????�?????� ?�??????N??�?????�), ??N?N�?� ??N�?�???�?�??N� (????N?N�N�N� ??????N?N�???�????) ?? ??N?N�?� ?�?�????N�???� (????N?N�?????? ?�?�??N�????N?), ????N�??N�N�?� N???N??�?�??N� ?�N�??N???N????????? ?????�N�N�?�?�?�???? ?? ????N�?�?�???�??N� ??N�?�????N?N�N?NZ, ?� N�N?????N� ??N�?�????N?N�?????? N?N�?�??N� ???�?�N�???�NZN�N?N? ??????N� ?�?�N�??, ???�?? ?? ???�N�?�???????� a�� ??N�??N???N??????? ??N�?�????N?N�N?NZ.
— ?? ??N�?? N�?�?? ?�???�N?N? ???�??N?N??�N�N�? a�� N???N�??N???N�?� ??N�. ?? ???? ??N�?? N�?�??, ?�N??�?? ???� N?N�??N�?�N�N? N�??????, N�N�?? N�?�?�?? ???�??N?N??�N??????? N�?�N???N??�?�?????? ?�N�?� ?????????�?? N?N�N????� ?s???�????????N????????? ??N�??N???N????????? N�?�N�N?N�???�, ?? N??�???????? ??N�N�??N?N??�?� ???� N�???�???� N�??N�N�??N�?????�N�???????????� N?????N�N??�?�?????� ?????�?�?? ?�N�??N???N???N?NZ ??N�?�????N? O�O?O�O?O�O�O�O�, ?s?�N�?�??N�?�???? (?�???�???�????N�?? ???� ???�?????�?? [N�???�???�]), ?� A�????-???�??N?N??�N?????A� N?N�?�?�?? ?s?�N�?�??N�????????. ???? N??�??N�?? ????N�?�N�?�N???N�?? ?????�?�?? ?? ???????????�?????� ?????�???�?�????N? ???�?� ?????�N? ??.?�. ???????�N????? N????????? ??N?N??�?�???????�?????�?? A�?sN�N�?? ?? N??�N�?�???????� ???�???�A� (??., 1973): A�a��???????? ?? N�??N� ?�?� ???? N�??N?N?????N? ???�????N� N???????N?N�???�?? ?? N�?�N�?�N�N??????? ???�N�?�N�?? ?? ???�??N�?�N??�, ?? ?�N�??N???N???????N? ???�?? ??N�?�N�?�N???????N? N�N�?�??N?, ?? ?�??N�?�??N??????? N??????�???????�; ??N� ??N?N�N�?�N�?�?�?? ?�???? ???�?�?� ?? ???�??N?N??�N?????N� N?N�N�????N�?�?�N???N�N� ???�??????N?N?N�, N???N�?�N??�????N�N� A�??N�N�??N?????-N??�?�N????�N???N??????? ??N�???�???�??N�????????A� (???� N??�?????? ???�?�?� ?�N�??N???N??????? ???? ??N�????N?N�???�???�????NZ); ??N????�?�?????? ????N�?�N�?�N????� ?? N?N�???? ??N�????N??�?????? ???�??????N?N? ???� ?�?�N????� ??????N?N??�?� ?�?�N?????N�?� 1392 ??. ?? ?????�???�???�A�. ?z????! ?�?�?�???????�N�N? ???�???�N�?�????NZ ????N???N�?????????? ??N?N??�?�???????�N�?�?�N? ??N� ???�???????�N� ???????????�?�??, N�N�?? ??N??�?�??N?N�?????� N�N�?�????N�???????????? N�??N?N�????N�??N�?�N??????? ???�?�?�?�N� ?? ?�?�????????N�???? N??�?� ??N�???�N�?�??N????� ?? N�N????�?? ????N??�?� ?s???�???????? N�?�???�?� ???�N????????�N? ?�N�??N???N???N?NZ ?�?�??N?NZ, ?�?�N?????N� ?? ?�???? N??????�?�???�?????????? ???� N?N�??N� N�?�?� ??N?N?N�?�N?N�?????�?? N�?�?????�N�N??????? ?�?�N�???�N� ?sN�N�???�. ???? ???�?? ??N??�?????� ???� N????�?????�?�??, ?� N???N????�N??�N�??N�?????�?�?? ?�N�??N???N??????? ???�????N�?�?� ?? ??N�?????�??????N?N�???�????N�?? ????N�?�??N�???�?�. ?Y???�N?N�?�?�N�N?N? N??�?�?????� ???? ???�N�??N?N?, ???? ?? ????, ???�????????N�?�, a�� ???� ?�?�?�N?N�.

?�N?????N� ?�N�??N???N??????? N�?�N�?????? ?? ?�N???N�??????

?�N?????N� ?�N�??N???N??????? N�?�N�?????? ?? ?�N???N�??????

?YN�?? N??????�N�N??????? ???�?�N?N�?? ?s?�N�?�??N�???? ?? ????N�?�????N? N?N�?�?� ????N?N????�N�N?N�???�????N�?? ?�?�???????�????????????, ?????� N�?�??N??�N?N�???? ??N�???????????�??N?N? ?�N�N�?�???�??????N�?�N??????� N�?�N???????????. ?�?�N�?? ?? N?????N�N? ???�?�?�?�?�?�????N?N�?? N?N�?�?� ???�NS?�??N�???? N??�?????�?�N�???�N�?� ?�?�???�?�N? ??N�N�??N????????? N�?�N�?�N�?�????, ???�N? ?�?�N�??N�N� ??N� ????N�??N�N�N� ?? ?????�?????????�N?N? ?? N??????� ??N�?�??N? ??????N� ?�?�N�??. ?�??N� N�?�?????? N�??N�N�?�?�N? ??N?N�??N�????! ?s?�?? ?�?�N??????� ?? ???�N�N�?� 2007 ??. ?????�??N�N?N�??N? ?????????? ??N?N� ??????N�?�N�???????�N? ?�?�?????�?????? ?�?�?�?�??????, A�N�?�N�?�N�N??????� N??�?????�?�N�???�N�N� ?? ?sN�N�??N? N????�N?NZN�N?N? N�??N�??N??? ??N�???�?????�?????�????N�?? ?�???�???�N?-??N�???�??N�????A�. ?? ????N� N�?�?? ?�?� N?N�?? ??N�???�??N�, N?N�?�????????N�N?N? N?N????? ???� ?????�??N�??N�?�N??????? ?????�??N�???? N�?�N�?�N�N??????? ?????????�??N�???? ?? ???�???�?????�???? ?�?�N????�?�????N? ??N�?�?�?????�??N�?� ??N?N�N�???? ?�. ?�N�???????�???� ?? N�????, N�N�?? ??N?N�?�N�???�N? N�?�N???N??�?�?????� ?????????????� ???� ??N�???�???�?�N� ??N�??N????�???????�????N? ?sN�N�???� ?? ?�??N?N?????. ???????�?�N????? ???�?�?�N�??N�?? ??N??�?�?????�N�??N???, ??N??�???? ?????? ?�?�N�???�N�?�???? ????N�N??????� 25.000-30.000 ???�??N�?�N�???? ??N�N�??N?????N� ?�?�???�?�N?. ?s???????� ?? ?�????N?N?N�?� 2008-???? ?????�?�?�?????? N???????N�?�?�N?N? ??N?N� ?�?�??????N????? ?�. ???�?????�N�????, N�?? ???� N�??N�N????� ???�N?N??�???�????N? ????????N?N�?? ???�N�??N�?? ?�?� ?�?�???????�N� N? ?????????? ??N�?�?� ???�????N??�?�: A�?z?? ???� ?�NZ?�???� ??N�. N�?�N�?�N�… ?? N?N�?�N�?�?�N?N? ???� ??N?N???N�N? ???�N? ?? ?�?�??????N???NZA� (N?N�???�??N?N�?????� N???N�N�?�???�???� a�� ?�.??.), ?� ??N�N??????? ?????�?�?????�: A�???�N�?????� N??�???�?? ?�?� ????????N? N? ?�N�?????�??, ?�?� ?�?�???�?? ?s?�N�?�??N�?????� ???�?? ?????????? ?�???�?�A�. ?????�?�N�, ?? ???� N??�???�??, ?� ???�??N?N�????N�?�?�N????? N???????N�?�?�N?N? ??N� N??�N�???�N�???????? ??N�??N?N�N????�. ???�?? ???�N�. ???? N�??N� N�?�??N�, N�N�?? ????N?N????�N�N?N�???�????N�?? ?�?�???????�???????? N? ?�?�N?N�?�????N�?? ?�N�N�?�???�??????N�?�N??????? ????N�?�??N�???�?�???? ??N?N??�?�???????�????N? ??N�?�??????N?N�?? N?N�?�???�N� ?�?�??N�N�?� N??�???�???????? N�N?N�?�N�???????? ???�???�???�N�?�, ????N�?�?? ????N�?? ???�?? N??�????N?N�?????? ???�??N?N�??, ???� ???�?�?????�N?N?. ?Y??N�????N? N�N�?? ???? ???�N? ???????????? ??N?N�??N�?????� ???� N??�??N�?�N�, N�N�?? N?N�????N�?�N????�N? ?�????????N�?� A�??N�N�??N??????� N�?�N�?�N�N�A� a�� N�?�?????� ?�?� A�N�?�N�?�N�N�A�, ???�?? ?�?�?�N�N� a�� A�???�?????�?�N??????� N�?�N�?�N�N�A� ?????�??N�N? ???? ???�N�?????? N�?�N�???�N�N�?? XX ??. ??N?N�???? N?N�??, ???�N�N�??N�?� N�N?N�????. ?? ???�?�????N�?? ??N� ?????�?�?? ?? ??N?N�??N�??NZ ?sN�N�???� a�� ???�?�?�????, ???�N?N?????N�?� N??�????N?N�???�, ??N�?�?�?�?�?? ?? N�?�?�??N�??N�???????�N?. ???? N??�????????N? N?N�?? N?N�N�?�???�?�N?N�N� A�N?N�?�?�????N????????? N�?�?�?????�A� ?? ???�?�?�???�N�?�?�?? N�N�?�N�N??�???? ????N?N????�N�N?N�???�?????????? N??�N�???� ?sN�N�??N??????? N�?�N???N??�?�??????. ?? ????N�????N?, N�N�???�N� ?�?�?�N�N�N? ?? ????N� ?? N�?�?�???�N?N�N?N?N?, ??N�??N�?�??????N?N?-???� ???� ???�???�N�??-?�?�???�??.
A�?�?�?�?? ??N?N????????? ??N�?�N????�?�??N�?�????N? ?????�???? N?N�???�N�?�???�N�N?, a�� ????N??�?� ?�?�???�N�?�N�?�?�N???N�?? N??�?�????N?N� ?? ?�N�N�?�????N�?�N� ?????�?? ?�????????N�?�??????, a�� N�N�?? ???�???�???�?�?� ??N�??N??�?�???�?�????N�?� N�??N�??????N�?� N�?�??N�N�N� ?�?�?????? ?�??N?N?????, ???�??????N�???? N????�N?NZN�N?N? ?�N???????, ?�N?N�??, ?s?�???�???�N�-?Y???????�N?N???????, N????????? ?�?????�N�N?N�??????, ??N�N?????N?N�N?NZ ?? ?�???�N�??????N?N�N?NZ ?? ?�???�N?N????? ???�N�?� ???�N??�?�??N� ??N????�?�?????? ?�N�??N????�??. ?????�?????? ?�?�?�???????�N�N? N?N�????N? ??N�??????N�??????N?, N?????N????�??????N? ???? ??N?N??????? ??N??�N?N�N?N�??N�?? ???�N�?????�????N??? ???�N�????N? N�??N�??????N�?� N�?�??N�N�N� ?�?�?????? ?�??N?N????? N?N�?�?�?? ????N?N�?�???????????? ???�?�??N? N�??N�??????N�?�???? ?�??N?N�?????� ?? ?�?�???�???�. ?�???�N? ????N?N�??N�??N�?? ???�N�?�?� ?�???�????, ???�?�???�N? ????N?N�??N�??N�???? N??�N�???�????, ?�N???N?N�?? ??N�?�??N�???? ?�???�??????N�???? N? ??N?N�N????? N??????�N�?�????N? ???� ?�??N?N�?????�, ???�???�?�?�????N�?� N�N�?�?�N�??N?N�N?NZ, N�??N�??N??? ???�?�???�N? ??N�N??�???�??, a�� ???�N�?�N?N�???�, ???�???�N�????????N�?� ???�N? N??????�N�N??�????N? ?????�N???N�N� ??N?N�?�N??�N?N�?????? ???? ???�N??�?�?�????N�?? N�?�?�?�????????N�N??????? ???�?�???�???�???? N?N�N�?�???�?? ?�??N?N�?????�, a�� ?�N�??N????� ???�???�?????� ??N�??N?N�N??????�?? ?? N?N?N�????N?N�?????? N�??N�???????�?� ???�?�??N? ?�?�???�?????? ?? ?�??N?N�????????A�.
??N�??N�?�N?N?N? N? N?N�????, ?????�N?N??????� ????N�???�??, N??�?�??N?N? ??N�N??? ??N�N???N?, N?N�???�N�?�???�?�?? ??N�?�???� ?�N�??N???N?????N� ??N???N�????, ??N�?�????N?N�?�???�N??�?? ???? ??N??� ??????N�?� ??N�???????�?�??????. ??N�???�????N???N???N?N? N? ???�N?N?????N�?? ??N�NS?�?�?????? ?�N�??N??? ???� ?Y???????�N?N? ?? N???N??�?? N? ???�N????�N?N?N�???�????N�?? ???�N�?�N�?�?????�?? ?? ???�N�???�??N�???�??, ?????�N?N??????? ????N�???�N? ???? ?????�?�N?N??????? ??????N�N�?�?�N?N? N�?�N?N???N�??N�N? ??N� ??N�???????�?�??????. ?� ??N�?�????N�?� ??N� 6 ??NZ??N? 1685 ???????� ???? N?N�???�N�?�???�?�, N�N�?? «???�???? N?N�??N�N�???�N�N? ??N�??N????�?�????N�?� ?�NZ??N????? ?�N�??N???N??????? ???�N�???? ???� ??N�??N�N??�?�?????? ???�N??????�N?????N� N???N� ?�?�N� ?????�N�???�?�?�?�N�?�?�N?????N?N�N?, ??N??�?�N?N�???? ?? N????�?�??N?N�N? ??N�?? ?�?�N�??N�?� ?s?�???�??N�?�, ???�?�????N�?� ?? ?�N????????�, ?� N�?�???�?� ??N�N?????N� ??????N�?�????N�??N�N� ??N�?�????N?N�?�??».
?z?????�???? ???�N�?�?�??N?N? ??N??� N? N�??????, N�N�?? A�?? ??????N? ????N??????????�?? 1060, ?????????� [N�?�N�N?N�????] ?????? ???�N�?�N??�?? ?????? ???�?�N?N�N? ???????�?�??N�?�??, a�� ???�?? ????N??�?� ?? 1820 ??????N? ????????N�?? ??N?N�??N�???? ?? N�???�???�???? ???????�N? ?�?�??N???N???, a�� ???????�?�N?N�???? ?�??????N�?�?? ?? ????N�?�N?N�??N�N� ?�N�??N???, N????�??????????N???N?N?, ??N�N??�?? ???� ??N�???�?????? ?? ???�N�?�?�?? ???�N�?�N??�?�N?N�N?N?N? ?? ?Y???�N?N?N? ?? ?????�???�????NZ. ?� ??????N? 1062 ????N??�N? ?�?�??????N� ??N�?????�?�N????� ??N� ????N??�?�??N�N?N?N? ?? N?N�???�??N�?� N?N�N�?�??N� ?Y???????�???? a�� ?s?�???�??N�?�A�. ?�?�?�N?N??� a�� ???�?? ???�N�N�????, ???? ??N�?�?????�??N? N?N�?�???�N�??NZ: N????�???�?????� N�??????N�?????? ???�N? ?�N�??N???N??????? N�??N�N�??N�?????�N�???? ??N�?�????N?N�??, ????N�??N�?�N?, ???�?? ?? ?? ?�???�N?N?????N?N�???� ??N�?�??????N� ?�N�??N???N?????N� ????N??�?�?�?????? ????N�?�, ???�N??�?�N�?�?�N????? ??????N�??N�N??�?� ????N�??N�?? ?�?�????N??�N�N� ?? ?????�?�?� ??N�??N???N??????� ????N�??N�?�. A�??N�??N???N??????� ????N�??N�?�A� a�� ???????�N�?� ???�NZN�???? ?? ???????????�????NZ N�?�?�????N�??N? ????N�???????? ????N�?�, ?????� ?? ?�NZ?�???? ???�?�??-???�?�N?N????? ??N�?�?????�?? N??�???� ?????? ???�N??�?�N�?�?�N????? ??N�??N?N?N�N?N�??N?NZN� ?? N�N??????�N� N�?�N??????????? ???�?? ??N?????N�?�?�?�???????? ?? ???�N�?�N�N�?�?�??N�?????�???????? ???�?�???�??????. ?? ?? N?N�?�???�N� N? ???�???????? N??�N?N�?�?� ?s?�???�??N�?� a�� ???? N? N�?????? ???? N? N??�???? ?????�??????N????? N�???�N�N?N�???? ????N�???? N? N�?�N�N�N�N???N? ???�?�???????�?�????N�???? N�?�N�?????�????, ?? ?????????? ???� ????N�??N�N�N� N?N�??N??� ??N�???�?? ?? N�N�?�?????�?�N?N? N???N�?�N??�?????�N? ?�???�??N�???? ?? N??�N�?�?�N�???? ?????????� ?�??????N�??????N�N� ???� ??????. ?�N�?�?? ??N�N?N�N�???�??N� N??????�?� N? ???�???�N�???�??N????????? N?N�?�???�?�???? ?? ???????�N� ?? ??N�????N�?�????N�?? ???�N�?�????N�?�N??????? ???�??N�?????? ?????�????, ?� N�?�???�?� ????N�????N??????? N�?�?�N�N�, ???�N�?�??N?????N?N? N??? N??????�N????????? N�?�?�N�N�?�?�N????????? ??N�N??�???�. ?�N�?�?? ??N�N?N�N�???�??N� ?�???�N?????N�?�, N???N�????N�??N�????, ?? ???�?�N????�??N??�?? a��N�????????N�?�N�??N?, ???�N??� ?? ???�?�??N????�N�???????�N? N?N�???�N�???�. ?�???�???????�?�?? ?? N???N�N?????N??�??N?N? ???�N? N???N?????N�N�??N�N� N�?�?�?�?? ???�N?N�?�N�N??????� ??????N�?�N�????, ??N�N??�?�????????????, ??N�?�?????�N�????, N???N�??????????, ???�N???N�???????? ?? ???�N�????N�????????. ?�?�?�??N�?�?�?? ???�?�N?????N�N� ?? N�?�?�?�?????�???�N�????. ?zN????�?�?????? N??�?�?????�??N?N? ?�N�??N???N??????� NZ???�?�??N�N� ?s?�???�??N�?�, ????N�??N�N�?�, ?????????�???? N????????? ???�??N??????? ?????�?�?�???�??, ??N�?????� ??N�?�N?????N�N� N???N�?�N??�??????, ???�????N�?????�N??�?? N�?�???�?� N�??N?????N???N?NZ ??????N???N?NZ N??�N�N?NZ ?? ????N�???????� ??N�N??�???�. ?z?????� ???� ???�???�???�?�?� ????N?N�N�?�?�?????�????N�N� ?? N????�?�?�?�??N�N� ?? ??N�?�?????�???�??????N??� N????�N�???�?�N?????N?N�?�??, ?�??N�?�???�N�N?N�????, ???????????? ???�????N�?????�?�????N? ?�?�???�N�N?N�??, ?????�NZN�?�?�?� ?? N??�?�N? ???�??N�???? ???? N????�???�????NZ ????N????�N�??N�?�N?????N� N?N�?�??N?N�??, ??N?N�????, ?�?????�N�????, ??????????, N??�?�????N?N�?�?? ?? ??????N�?�N� ?? ?�N�?�?� ??N�?�??N?N�?�???�?�???�, ???�??N�?????�N�, ???? ?�N????????�, ?????�???�???? ?�N�??N???-?�??N�?�???�N�?�?? ?Y?�???�?� ???�N�?�???�????????N�?�, ????N�?�???�?� ????N??�??N�??????N�?�, ????N�?????� ?�?�N?N????�????N�?�, ?s?�N????�N�?� ?�?�?�N�??????N�?�, ???�??????N�?� ????N�??N??�????N�?�, ?? ??N�N?????N�. ?� 1857 ????N??? ????N??�?�?????�???? ?�?�???�N�N??�?�N� N?N�N�????N�?�?�N?N?N�???? ???�?�?????????? ?�?�???????�, ?? ????N�???? ?�N??????? ?????�N?N�?�?�N� N??�??N�?????� ??N????�N�?�?????�. ?�??N�?�??N�??N�???? ?�?�???????� ???�?�???�N�?�?�N�N?N? ?�N???????N??????? ?�N�??N??????? ?????�?? ???�??????N�??????N�, ?????�?????�?� ??N????????�??N????? ?Y???�N?N??????� N�??????N�?�N??????� ???�N�?�N?N�????. ?YN�?? N?N�???? ?????????? ???� N??�N�N??�?�??N�N� N?N�?�N�?�?? ???�???�???�N�???????? N???N?????N�N�?� ?�N�?�?� ?�N�??N???N????�N? ?????????�.
??N�?????� ?�?�NZ?? ??N�???�N�?�?�N�: A�?�???�???????�?�N� ??N�N?N�?�?????�, N�N�?? ???� N?N?N�?�N?N�???????�?�?? N?N�??N�????N� ?�???�????, ?????� ?�N�??N????� ???� ??N?N�?�?????�?? ?�N� N??�?�???�. ?�???�N?N�?� N? N�?�?? ?�N�?�?? N?N�?�N�N�, ?????� ?�N�??N????� ????????????N�?????�?�?? a�� ??N�N??�?�???????� ?? NZ???�?�??N�?????� ???�?�??, ???�????N�?????�?�?????� N??�?�???� ?? ???�???�?�???? ???� ???�????, ??????N�?????�?�???�, ??N�N??????�?????� ?�???�??N�???? ?? N??�N�?�?�N�????, ??N�???�?�???� ?????� (??N????�?�?????? N??�N�N?N????�, ????N�??N�?�?�???� ?? ?�?�??N???). ?? ??N?N� N?N�??, ???�?? ??N�?�?????�??, N???N�?�N�?�?�??N?N? N? ?�??N�?????????? N�??N�?????????? ???�N?N�?�?�N?????N?N�N?NZ. ??N�??N????� ?�N????????� ?? ?�?�???�??????N???N�?�????N????????? N�?�?????????� ?�?�???????�?�?? ???�??N?N�???� ?????�??N�???? ?? ?�?�???�??N�????N??????? N�??N�???????�?� ?�?�N�?? ?Y??N??????�??N�????, ?� N�?�???�?� ????N�?�?�?? ???�?�??N?NZ N�???�N? ?? ???????�?????�N�???? ?? ???�N�?�??????N�?�N??????? ???�?�?�A�.
??N�N??????? ???�?�???�N�N? ??N�?�?????�N�?�???? N�?�???�N??�?� N�??, N�N�?? ???? N�?�??N�N? N????�N??�N�N?N? ??N�?????�???�???�????N????? ??N???N?N?N?N�???� ?? N�N�?�????N�N?N? ?? ??N??�?�?� ?�N�??N???N??????? ??N??�N?N�N?N�N� ????N�?????� ?�N????????� ?? ??N�N?????N� ??N??�?�N?N�-N�N�?�????N�?�?�N?N� ?????�?�?�??N�???? ?�N�??N???N??????? ??N??�N?N�N?N�N� ???????�??N�N????????? ?�N�?�?�?�?� ?Y???�N?N???, ?Y???????�?�, ?sN�N�???�, ?????�???�??????, ?�?�?�?�N�????, ?�???�???�N�????, ?�?�????N�???? ?? ??N�??N�??N� N�?�??N�N�???? ??N�???�?????�????N? ?�N�??N???. ?�N???N? N�?? ???�???�?�??N? N�?�N�N�??N�?� ?? N�?�N???N??�, ???�N�?�??N??????�N? ???�?�?�?�N? ???�?? ??????N�N�, N�?�N�????????N�?� ??????N?N�N�?�??N�???? ???�?? ????????N�, ???????�??N�?� ?????�?�??N� ???�?? ??N�N??�???�, ??N�N???N�?�N? ?????�?�???� ???�?? ???�N???N? a�� N?N�?? ??N??�?????� N�?�N�?�??N�?�N�???�N??�N�N?N? ??N�N????????? ???�N?N�?�N�N?N�?????? ?? ????N�??N�?? N?N?N�?�N�??N�?�N??????? ????N?N�?�????. ?? ???�??N? N?N�?? N??�???? ???? N??�?�?� N�?�N�?�??N�?�N�???�N??�N� N�N�?�?�??N�N�?�?????? ??N�N????????? N?N�?????�??N? ?�N�N�???????? ??N??�N?N�N?N�N� ???�N�?????�! ?? ???????�N�?� ?�???? ??N??�N?N�N?N�N�.
?� ?s?�???�??N�?� ?�???�?? ?? N�????N�???�?? ?�N�??N???N??????� ????N??�N�?�?�??, ?�??N�?�N�?�N�N?N�??N�?� ???�N�?�??????N�??????, ????N?N�N�, N�N??????�????????-?????????�N�NZN�??N?N�N� ?? ??N?N�??N�??????, N?N�??N�?�??N????� ???�?�??N?NZ N�???�N? ?? N�?�?�????N�???? ??N??�N?N�N?N�N� ?????�N?N?????N� ?�N�??N???. ??N�?�???? ????N� N??�?�??N??�N� N???????N???N?N�N? ?�??N�??N�???? N�?�?????�??N??�?? «?s?�???�???�N�?????? N�N�??????????» ???�N�-?z???�???�N??�, ?�???? N?N�???????�?? ?? ????N????�: N�N?N�N? ?z??N??�??N�?�, N�N?N�N? ?�N�??????N�?� ?? N�N?N�N? ?????????�, ?� N�?�???�?� ?�??N�??N�?� A�??N?N�??N�???? ????N�????N??????? ????????N�A� ?z???�?????�N??� ?? ?�??N�??N�?� ?�N�??N???N?????-?�?�N�????N????????? ?? ?�?�N�????N?????-?�N�??N???N????????? N??�?????�N�?�?? ??N�?�???�????N??� ?�??N???N? N? ?�???? ?�?????�N�N�?? ???�N?N�??N�?? ???�N??�?�?????�??. ?�N�?�?? N?N�N�?�?�???�???? N??�????N???N�?�???�?�?????� ???� N?N�???????� ??N?N�???????????? ?? ??N�?�?�???�??N????????? N?N???????, N�?? ?�N?N�N? ??N�??N???N??????? ???�????N?N�N�?�N�, ?????�??N?????N?N? ?? ?�???�N?N?????N?N�???� ?�N�??N???N?????N� ????N??�?�?�?????? ?Y???????�N?N? ?? ?????�???�??????.
?s???????� N?N�?�N�N????? ?�N�?�N� ???�?�?????????? N�N??????�???????�, ?�N�N�???�????N??????? ??N�??N???N??????? ?�????N?N�???�N?N??????? ?�???�N�N�???? ?�?�??????N????? ?�?�?�N�??N??� ???????�?�????N??????? ????N??�N�???� ?s?�???�???�N� ?? 1863 ??????N?, N�?�?? ?�N�?� N???N�N�?�??N??�??N?N? ???�????N�???�??N�?� ???�??N�N� N? ??N�?�?????????? ?�N�??N???N????????? ???�??????N?N?????.
?z???????? ???� ???�N�??N�N� ??????N�??????N�?�?�?�?? ?�N�??N??? ???� N?N�??N� ?�?�???�N?N� ??N�????N?N�?? N?N�??N�?�N�N? N�?????????�N�?�?�N????????� ?????�N?N??????? ????N�???�?�??N??????? ???????�N?N�???? ?????�?�?�???????? ?�?�?�????N??�?�???� ?????�???�?? (1351-1434), ????N�??N�N�?? ?????�N�?�?�?� ?�?�?�N?N�N?N�N?NZ ?????�?�??N? ??N�?? ?�N�NZ?????�?�N????� ???�?? N????�N�?�????N�?? ???? ??N??�?? ?�??N�?????� N�N�????N�?�N�??N�N�N?N?N�??N�?? ??????N??????? N�???????�N????�???? A�???�???�-?�A� a�� N�?�????N� ?�?� ???�N�???�N�???? ?? N??�????N�, ???? N? ??N�?????� ?�N� ??N�??N�???????????�???�?????? ???�N�????N�?????????? A�??N�?�N?N�??????N?N�?�??A�. ?zN�?�??????????, ??N�???�???� ???�N?N�??N�N� ?�N�??N??? ?? ????N?N� ?�N�??N???N?????N� ????????N�N� ?????�?????? ???� ?s???�???� ?? ???� ??N�N?????N� N??�?�??N???N?????N� ?�?�???�?�N? N?N�??N�?�?�?? ????N�?�???�?�?�????N?NZ N�???�N? ?? ??N�N????????? ?????�?????? ?�?�?�????N??�?�???� ???� N?N�???? ???�N�?????�. ???? ??N�?????� N�??????, ???�?�N??�N? ???� N?N�?�N?N�N?, N�N�?? ????N? ?????�???�?? a�� N�?�??N�??N�?�N????? N?N�?????????? ?�N�??N????????�. ?�?? ??N?N??????? N??�N?N�?�?�, ?? ?�???? ????N�N??�?�?????? ?�N�?�?? ????N?N�?�N�??N�???? ?�N�??N??? N? N�N???N?N�?????? NZ????N�?�. ?Y??N�????N? N�N�?? N?N�???�, N�???�???�?????????? N??�?????�??N�?�N�???�?�N�???�?? ???????????? ?�???�N??�??N??????? ??N� N??�???????�N?N?N�???�?�N�???�???? ?�?�?�????N??�?�???�, ???�?�???�N�N? ?�?�N�???�??N�???????? ???????�?? N�???�N????? ??????. ?�?�??N? ?�?�N�??/N???/N�???? a�� ????N�N�?? ???????� ???�?? A�????N???N�?�?�N�N?A� (?�N??????�?�N????? a�� A�????N??�?�?????�?� N?N????�???�A�), ?? N�??????N�?�?�?? ??N�N??? ?�?? ???????�?? ??N�?�?????????�N�N? ?????�?�?�N? N�?�N�?�????N�?� ?????? ?�?�N�?????? N�N�????N�?�N�N? ?�?�N� N???N?N?N�N?. ????N�N? ???�?????� N�?�?? ????N??�?�?????�?� N?N????�???�: N????�N� ?�?�?�????N??�?�?? ?? 83 ???????� ??N� ?????�????????????, N?N�???�N�?�???????? ??N�?? A�N??�N?N??�?????? ?? ????N�?????? ?�?�N?N? N????�????N?N?A�. ??N? ??N�?? N?????N????�?�?? ???� N�?�?????� ?�???�??N�?� ?????????????? ?? ?????�N�?�N?N�?�, ?????????� ??N�N??????� ?? ???� N??�?�?�?�NZN� N? ?�?�??????? ??N�??N???????. ?? ???� N?????N�N?N�?�.
?Y?? N????????�N�?�?�N?N?N�??N? ?????????????? ???�N?N�?�?�N? ?????�N?N??????? N�?�N�??N�???�N�???? ?????� ?�?�N???N�????????, A�N�??N�??????N�?� ???�N�?�???�??N� ?�?�N�?? ?Y??N??????�??N�???? ?�???�N?N??�?? N�?�N?N�N?NZ ?????????�?? ?�N�??N????�. ?YN�?�??????????N�?�?�N? ???�N�?�???�???� ?�N�?� ???�???�?�?�?? ?�???�N?N????? ???�?�N?N�N?NZ. ?s???????� ???�N�?�???�?? ??N�??N�???????� N�?�N�?�?� N�N?N�?�N�?????� ???�?�???�????N?, ??N�?�??????????N�?�?�N? ?????�N?N�?�?� ???�????N�?�????N�?�????N�?� ??N�?�???� ???�?? N??????????? ??????N�?????�????N�????. ?�?? N�?�N� ????N�, ???????� ??N?N�?�N??�N?N�?????� ??N�??N�???????�?? N�?�N�?�?� N?N�N�?�??N�, ???�N�????N?N�???�N?N? ?????? ???�?�N?N�N?NZ ?????�N????�N?N?N�?�, ???? ?????�?� ????N�N�?? ???�????N�?�????N�?�????N�?� ??N�?�???� ???�?? ??N??�?? N???N????�????N�???�??, ???�?? ?�N???N�?? ???�????N�?�?? ????N�?�?�?�N? ?? ??N�??N�N�N�???? ????N�?�A�. ?Y?? N??????�?�N??�????NZ 1585 ???????� ???�?�??N? ?????�N????�???? ?? ??N????�???�????, N????�???�????N? ?? ????N�??N�???? N???N�N�?�?????�??N?N? ?? N?N????�?�??N�N� ?�??N�?�N� ?�N???????N????????? ?�?�??????N�N??�???? N?N????�, ????N?N�?�N?N�???? N????�N�N???N� ?????�N?N?????N� ?????????�????N�N� ???�N�?�???�???�?�??N?N? ???� N�N�?�???�?????� ??N�?�??????????N�?�?�NZ ???�N�?�???�???�, ???? ?????�?� ??N�?�???? N�?�?�?�??N�?�N�N? N?????N�??N�?� ???�?�?�, ?????�???????�??N????� ?? ???�N�?�???�???�. ?? ???� ?�N�?�?? N??�N?N�?�N?, N�N�???�N� A�???�????N�?�??A� ??N�?�??N�N????� N??????? ?????�????????N�??N? ???�?? N?????N??�??????N�?�?�.
?Y??N�?�N�??N�?? ??????N�??N� N�??N?N?????N??????? ??N?N�??N�????, N?N�??????N�?�N� ???�?�??N??�????N�?� ?�N�?????�?????? ????N??�?�?�: A�?�?�N�?�?� ?Y???????�N??� N??�?? ????N?N�??N�??N�?� N�?????�N�N� ???� ?�N???????, ?�?�????N?N�N??�, ?�?�N�N??�??N?, ?�???�N?????, ?s???�??. ?�N�???? ??N?N�?�?? N????�?�?�?�?�?�N?N? ?Y???�N?N??�, ?�??N�???� ?? ???�?�?� ????N?????????N? ????N�?????????? ????N?N�??N�??N�???? N�???�??N?????, N??�?�N????? ?? ??????N�?�????, ???�???�N?N????????? N??�?�?�N?????, ?�N????�???? ?? N?N�N�?�?�?�????, N??�???�?�???? ?? ??N�??N�., ??????N?????NZ N??�N�N??�??, N??�N�N?N???????, ???????�????, ?�?�???�?�?�?�??, ?�?�?�????N?N�?�????N????? ?? ??N�?�?�???? a�� ?????????? N??�????????, ????N�N�?? ??N??�??, N�N�?? N???N?N�?�???�N??�?? ??????N�??N�N� ?? N�??N?????N?N? N�???????�N????�???? ?�N�N�?�. ???�??N???N�?�???? ????N?N�????N?, N�N�?? ????N?N�??N�??N�?� N�??N�??????N�N� N�?�?�??N�N� ???�N�???????�?�N?????N?N�?�?? ??N�??N�???? N??�?�???�??N?N? ???� N?N�???? ??????N�?�????N�N??�, ?? N�?�?? ???�?? ??N?N�N�?�N�?�?�?? ?�???�N?N????� ??????N�??????N�?�?�N?N?N�???? N??? N?N�??N�????N� ?????�N?N????????? ????N?N????�N�N?N�???�, N�?? ?? ??N??�???�?�?? ??N�??N�??N�???? ?????�??????N?????. ???? ???? ?�??N�?�??, ???? ??N�?�???? a�� ??????N�?? ???� ??N�???????�N?N? ?? ?Y???????�N?NZ N�?�??, ???�?? ?�N�??N????�. ?s?�???�???�N� N????�?�?�?�N?N? ???�N? ????N� ??N�??N�N�?? ?�N�?????�???�????????, ?? ??N??� ?�N�??N????�, ??N�?�N�?�N?N�???�?�??N�?� ?????�??N�??N�?�N????????? ?�N?N�N????? ???� N??????�?? N?N�?�N�???? N�????????N�, ???�N�???????�?? ???� ??N�?�??N�?�N??????? ?Y???????�N??� ??????N?NZ. ?� ??????N�?� ??????N�???? ??N?N? ????N?N�??N�???�N? N�??N�???????�N? ??N�N?N�???�?�N?N? ?? ??N� N�N????�N�; ???? ?�?� N�?? ?�?� ?????? ??N??�?????� ???�?�N�???�?? ??N�?�NZ N�?�???�???? ??N�????N??�?�??????N?N�N?NZA�.
???? ?�N�?� N�?�???�?� ?????�N?N??????? ??N?N�??N�???? ?? ???�????N�?�N� N?????N�?? ?�?�???�N?N??�??N??� ???�N�???�N? ????N�??????N�?� (???�N�???�?? ???�N�????N???????) (1457- 1523) ?? N??????�?? ?????????� A�??N�?�??N�?�N� ?? ????N?N� ???�N�???�N�??N?N�A�, ????N??�?�?????????�???????? ?? ?sN�?�???????� ?? 1577 ??????N?, ????????N�N? ?? ???�???�???�N�????N� ?? ?�N???????N?????N� ?�N�??N????�N�, ????N??�N�: A�??N�??N????� ?�N�?�?? ???�N?N????� ????N�N�??N�???? N�??N�??????N�?�????, ?????�???�?? N??????? N�?????�N�N� ?? ?s?�N�N?, ?s????N?N�?�??N�???????????�N?, ?�???????�N�N???N?NZ ???�?�??N??�????N�??NZ, ???�???�??N� ?? ??????????N??????� N?N�N�?�??N�A�. ?? ??????N?N�????, N�N�?? ???? ??N??�?? ?Y???????�N??� ?????�?�????N?N�?? ???�?? ???�?�??????????, N�?�?? ?? N�N???????N�N� N�???�???�N�?�?? ?�N�?�?? ?????????????�???�?? ?�N�??N???.
?� ???�N?N�?????? N�?�N�?????? ?�N�?� ????N�??N�?????�?? ???�N�???�??????N? ??N??�N� ?�N�??N??? ???�?�N?????N??�???�??, N???????N�?�??N?????N?N? ?? ?s?�???�??N�?� 18 ???�N�N�?� 1627 ???????�. ?� N�N�?????????� N?N�?�???????? N�???�??N???N�?� ?? ?�??????????N?N�?� ??N�?�???�????N??� ?�??N????? (1670-1739) N�??N�?�?�??: A�…?Y????N�?�?�?�?? ?? N?N�?�???� ??N???N?N�?�???????? ???? N�?�N�?????? ?�?�?�???????�N�?�????N? N???. ?�??????N�??????N�N� N??????�?�N????? N??????�??N? ?�?�???�N�?�????NZA�. ?????????�?� ???�N�???�??????N??� ???�N�???????�?�N?N? N? N??�???�N�?????? N?N�?�??N� N�?�N�??????, ?????� ?�N�?� ?????�?�?�?? ?�?�N�?�?�N??�N�, ????N�??N�N�?? ?? ??????N�?� ??N�??N??�?????? ???�???� ?�N�?� ?�N�?� ???� ???�N?N�?�, ???????�???? ?�?�N�?�?? ??N?N�?�?�, ?� ???�????N�??N�N�???? ?????????�N???N�???? ???�??N�?�???? ?�N�?�?� ??N�????N�?�???� ????N�???�???� ?? N�?�N�??????N?. ?? ???�??N? ?? ?s?�???�??N�?� ???�N� N�N?N�????.
?�?�?�?� ????N??�?� ???�N�?�N?N�N�??N�??N�?�N????????? ?????�?�N�?� 1602 ???????�, ?????????� A�??N� ?�?�N�?� ???�?�?????�??N?N? ?????�???????�?� ?�N�??N???N?????N� N�?�N�?????�??A�, ???�N????????�N? ??N�??????N�?�?�?? 900 ?�N�??N???N?????N� ???�???�????N�N� ?????????? ?? ???�N�??????N�N� N?N�N�?�?�???�??????, ?�N�??N????� ?s?�???�???�N�-?Y???????�N?N????� ???� ???�N�??N??�?? N�N??????? ???� ???�???�?�??N�?�, ?� N?N�?�?�?? ?�?�???????? ??N�N?N�N�?�?????�N�N? ?�????.
???? ?????�?�N�N�, ???�?? ?? N????�?????�?????�, ?????�NZN� ?�??N�??N�????. ?YN�?�?????�, ?? ???�N�?????? N??�N?N�?�?� ?????? ??N?N�?�NZN�N?N?, ???�?? ??N�?�?????�??, ?�????????????N�????, ???? ?�?�?????? ????N�?�???�?�N??�??N�???? ???? N??�?�??N?NZN�???? ?�?� ???????? ??N?N�??N�??N�?�N??????? N????�N�N�??N???. ?z???? a�� ???�?? ????N�?�?�N??? ???�N�????, N??????�N�?�NZN�?�?? ?? N??????�?? ????N�????????N?N�?? ?? N?????N�N�???�?�????NZ. ?s?�?? ?�?????????? ???� ??N�N?N??�?�????N????????? ????????N?N�?�N�N?N�???� ??N�?�????N�, ????N�?????????? ?? ???�N�?�???�???�????NZ ??N�?�N�?�N?????N� ???�?�?�N�. ??N?N�??N�??N? ???�?�??????N� ?????�?�N�????, ???�?? ?? ??N?N�??N�??N? ????????, a�� N?N�?? ??N?N�??N�??N? ???�?�?�?????? ?????�N??????? ?�?�??N�N??�?? ?? ?�?�?�???�N�?�?? ???� ?????�N??????? N�?�?�?�??N�???? ?? N�N�N??????????�????????. ?? N�?�?�N? ?�?�?� a�� N�??N??�?�?????? ?? ???�N�?�N�???�?�N????? ??N??�?�?�??N�N? ???? N? ????????N�N?NZ ???�???�???? ??N�N�?�?�??N�?�???????? ?? ????N�???�?????�???????? ???�N�??????????. ?z?�???�N�?�N�N?, ???????�?�N�N?, ???�N�?�N�??N�N? ?? ????N�??N�, N�?�N???N?N?N�??N�N? N??�N?N�??, ????N??�N?N�N? N�???�??N?, N???N�???? N??�N�?�??N�??, ?�?�N�???�?�N� N�N???N�, ?�??N???N�N? ?�??N�??N�??N�?�N�?� ?? ????N?N�?�N?N�???�. ?? ?? ???�?�N????�??N??�?? a�� N?????N�N�???�??N�N? ??N?N�?�?????? N�?�?� ?? N?N�N�???�??????, N??�??N�N? ???�??N?N�N?. ?�N�?? ??N� ???�N�????. ?Y?????� ?�?�N�N�??N� ?�????N�, ?????�???? ?�?�N?N�?�????N�N? ??N� N�?�?�??N�?�N�N? ???� N??�?�N? ?? ???�N�?�N?N�???� ?�?�N?N??�?????�N???N�N� ???�?�????N�N� ??N??????�????N�?�?�?�?? a�� N? N�?�?? N�N�???�N� ???�N�??N?N�N?N?N? ?? ??N�?�?�???�??N? ?�?�??????????N?, ???? ??N�??N�???� ???�?�N????�N�?�????????N? N???N?N�??N?????NZ. ?? ????N??�?� N????�N�N�?? ??N�??N???????N�N? N??�?�?� ??N� ??N�??N�N�N�??N?, N??�?�??N? ?? ???�N?N�?� ?? N???N�?????�?????�????N?N�. ?�N�???�?�N�, N�N�?? ????N??�?�???????�N�?�?�N?????N?N�N? ?????�N�?�N�???? ???�??N??�N�N?N?, ???? ??N?????N�N� N????�?�NZ???�NZN�N?N? N???N?N�??. ?�N�?? ????N�???�?????�?????�N? ???�???�???? ???�???�N�??N?N�???? N?N�N�?�??N�???????�N? ?? ???�N�?�N?N�?????�N? N�?�N�?????�??????N? ???????�??N�?�????N? ??N??�????: ?�?????�N�N?N�???�, N??�?�??N�, ???�N?N�?� ?? ??N?N�??N�????.
???�?? N�N�?? ??N?????N�??N?N�?? ????N??�?� ?????�?�N�?� ???�??N�N???N??�?? N�N?N�????. ?Y??N�???? N??�N?N�???�?�N?N? N�N????�, N????�N?N??�N? 30 ?z?z?z ?�???�???�?? ???�???�???�N�???????? ???�N??�?�?�????N?. ?Y??N�???? a�� N????????� N�N?N�????, ??N??�??N????� ?? ??N??�?�?�?�?�???????? ????N�?????� ????N�N�?? ???� 30 ?�?�N� ?? ????N�????????N????� ?????�??N? N???????N�?�N�???? ?�N�??N??? ?? ?Y?�?????????? ?? ?�N?N�???�N?. ?Y??N??�?� ???�?????�????N? N�N?N�???? N??�N?N�???�??N?N? ???�N�N�?? ??????N???N�?�, ???? N�?????? ?�?� N�?????�: ???�???????�????N�?? ???�???�N�?? N??�N�?�??N�?? ???? ??N??�??N? ?Y???????�N?. ?? ????N??�?�????N?N? A�???�?�??N? ?�???????�N�N????�N?A� a�� ?�?�N?N�?????? ???�?�?�?? ???�??N????????? ??N�?�N?N�???�?�, ????????N�?�N�?�?�N????? ?????�???�???�N�????N??�????N?N? ???�N�?�N�??N�N? ?�N�??N??? ?? ???�N�???�??N�?�N?N�????.
12 ?�????N?N?N�?� 1666 ???????� ???�??N??????? ??N�?�??N?N�?�????N�?�?�N? ?? ?�??N�??????N?N� ??N�???�???� N�?�??N??�N?N�??N�N� ???�??N�???????? ?�???�?�N?N�???�?????????? ?YN�?????????�????N? ?Y????N?, N??�?� ??N�?�N?N????�??N????? ?? ???�N�?�???�N�?� ???�?�N???N�?�?? ?????????? ???� ?�N???????N?????N� ?�N�??N???N?????N� N�?�N�?????�??, ?? ?�N???????N??????? ?�????N??????? ??. ????N�??N???????N�, ?????�N?N�?� N? N�???�?????? ???�N??�?�???�??N???N� ???�N�???�??N�?�N?N�???? ??N�N?????N� N�?�?�?????? ??N�???�???�, ??N�???�N�?�?? ?? ?s?�???�???�N� ?? ????N�N�?�?�?????�?�??, N�N�???�N� ?�N�??N???N??????� N???N?N�?�?????????? N??�N??�???�?? ?�??N�N?N�????NZ A�???? ???�N�???�??N�?�N???????N? ???�N�N???N?A�, ?? ?? N�???? N�??N??�?� a�� ???� ?�?�N�N�????. ???�???�?? ???� N?N�????, ?????�??N?N�?�????N�?� ????N�???�?�???� ??N�N??�?? ???� N??�??N�N? ???? ???�?�???� N? N�N?????????????N�?�?�?�?? ?�N�??N???N????????? ???�????N?N�N�?�N�?�. ?? N?N�?? ?�N�?�?� N????�?�. ?Y??N??�?� ?????�????N� ???�N�?�????????N�???? ???�N�?�??N????�????N�?� ???�??N??????� ???�?�?�???�N�N� N??????�?�N????�??N?N? ?????�???�N�N?N?N? N�?�N??�????N? ????N�???�N?.
??N�??N????�, ??????N?N�????, N????�N�?�?�?? 2000 ?�?�??N�N�N�, N�?�????N�?� ???????�N�???? ?? ?? N?????NZ ??N�?�N�?�??N? ???�?�?�????N�?????�?�?? ?? ?�?�N�N??�??N? ????N?N� ?�N�??N???N?????N� N?N????�??. ?z?????�???? ??N�????N??� ??N� ?? ?�?�N�N??�???� ???� ????N�???�N? ???? ?s?�?�??????N�, N? ????N�??N�?????? ?�?�??N�N�?� ??N??� ?�N�?� N�?�???�?????�??N?N? N? VAN. HAER. REX ?? ??????N�?� N�??N�N??�?�, ?� ????N�???�?�???�, ?�?�N???N�?????�N�???�N? ???? N�?�?? ??N�?�???�???�?? ????N�N�?????�?????� ???�N�??N? ?�N????�?�, ??N� ????N�??N�???? ?? ?? ?Y?�N�???�?� N? N�N�N??????? ??N�???�?�?�?�??N?N?. ???�N�??N? ?�N????�?�, N?N�?�??N??�N? ?�N??????????????? ???�N? ?�N?N�N??�???? ?????�??N�????????N�?????�????N? ?? ?????�N?N??????? N?N�?�???�, N???N�?????�??????N??�N? ???� N�??N� N????�N� ??N�?�??N�??N?N�?�???? N?N???N�N????�, ????N�???�N? ?Y???�N?N??? ?? ?�??N�??N� ?�?�?�????N??�?�???� IV, ???? N?N????�??N??�N? ?????�??N�N?N?N? ???�??N????????? N�?�?�N�?�N??�????N? ???� ?�?�??N??�?�N?N�???? N? N�??????N�?? ?�N�?�N�???? ??????????????????. ?z???� N�??N�?�?�N?N�???�?????? ????N?N??�???�?�?� ???� N�N�?????� ?????�N?N??�, N�?�?? ???�?�??N�?? ???� ???�N?N�??N?N�??N� ????N�???�?�?? a�� ?�?� N?N???N�N???????. ?? ?? ???�??, ??N�?�??N?N�?�??N?N�?�, ??N�??N�????N?N� ?�?�?????�?�???? ?�N�??N????� N??? ??N??�???? N??????????? ???�N�?�???? ?? ??N�??N?N??�?�???? ?? N???N�N�?�???�?????? ???�N�???????�?�N??????? ?????�??N�??N�????N?N�??.

?�N?????N� ?�N�??N???N??????? N�?�N�?????? ?? ?Y???�N?N??�

?�N?????N� ?�N�??N???N??????? N�?�N�?????? ?? ?Y???�N?N??�

?s??N�N�N???N�??N? a�� N?N�?? ?????????� ???�N?N�??N? ?�?�N�?�N?N? ?? ??N�??N?N??�N? N????????�?�N�????N�N??�N?N?. ???? ?????�N?N????�N? ????N�???�?�???� ???� ????N�?????� ?Y?�N�???�?� ???� ?�N�?�?� ???? N�N�?�??N�N??�?�????????, ???? ????N�N�N???N�???????�N�??????: ???�N�N�-N�?? ???�N??�?�, ?� ??N�??N?N??�N? ???� N�?? N�N�???�N� ???� N????????�?�N�????N�???�?�, ?� ???�?�?� ?�?�?�????N??�?????�?????� ???� ???�???????�????N?NZ ???�N�???�??N�?�N???N?NZ ?�N�?�??N? ???� ?�N�??N???. ?z???� ???�?�?� ??N�??N�?�?????�?� ?Y????N? ????N?N????? N? ??N�N�?�?�?�?????�?? N�?�????N?N�?? ???? ??????????N? N?N????�N�?� ???�N�?�N�?????? ???�?�?�, ?� ???�??N�?�?�N� ?YN�?�????????N??????? ????N?N????�?????? ??N�?�???�???�???� ???�???�???�N�?????? ?�N�??N????�?? A�???�?�?�???�???�??N�?�?�N????? ??N�????N?N�N? ??N??� ??N???N�?�???�?�????N?, ???�???�N�????????N�?� ???�N? N???N?N�???? N??????? N? N�????N??????? N�?�N�??????N?NZ… ???�?? N?N�?? N????�?�?�?�?? ??N??� ??N�N??????� ?�N�??N???N??????� ????N�?????� ?Y???�N?N???A�.
?? ???�??N??????� ????N??�?�??N�N� ?????�N?N�?� N??? N??????????? N?N�?�???????�???? N�??N�N�?�N? ???�N�?????�NZN� ?? ?s?�???�??N�?� ??????N???N�N? ?? N�?�N�????????N�?� ?????????? ???�???�???�????N? N?????N�???�N�N?N�???�?????? N? ???�N�???�??N�?�N??????? ???�N�????N????????�???�?????�??.
1 ????N�N??�N�N? 1666 ???????� ?�N�??N???N??????� N???N?N�?�?????????? ?s?�???�??N�?� ??N�????N??�?? N?????NZ ?? ??N�N??�N??�???�?? ?�??N�N?N�????NZ ???? ???�N�???�??N�?�N???????N? ???�N�N???N?. ???? ????N??????�N???N? ?�N�??N????� ?? N�N?N� ??N?N�??N�N�???�??N?N?, ??N�???????�?�?�N? ????N??�N�?�N�N? ?�??????N??�N??�?�????N? ???? ?�N�??N???N???????N? ???�N�N�?�NZ ?? ??N�N?????N�, ???� ??N�NS?�???�????N�N� ???�?�N???N�?�????, ?�N�??N???N?????N� N�?�N�????N?N� ?Y???????�N?N?, ???????�?????�??N�???? ??N�?�????N?N�?? ?�N�?� ???�???�?? N????�?� ?? ?�?�??N�?�N�?� ???� ??N�?�?�?? ?�N�??N??? ?? ??N�?�????N�?�?�??????N�??N�?� ?? ??N�?�?�??????N�??N�?� ?????? ???� ?s?�???�??N�?�. ?? ??N?????N�?� N�?�?�N�?�N????� ??NS?�?�?? ?�??N�?�?�??.
???�?? N�N�?? ???�???�???�N�?????� ?�N�??N????� ?????�???�?�??N?N? ?�N??????�?? ?? ????N�??N�????N???N? N??�N�?�?�?? ?? ??N�N??????� ????N�?????� ???�?? ???�N�?�N�?�???�?? ?? N????????? N??�?�?????�N�?????? N�????N?N�???�?????????�??, ????N�??N�N�N� ???????� ???� ????N???N??�??N?N? ???�?�N???N�N??????� ???????�????N?. ?� 1691 ??. ?� ?Y?�N�???�?� ?�N�?�?� ???�???�???� ???�N�N�?� ?s?�???�??N�?�, ????N�??N�N?NZ ??N� ????????N�?� ???�???�N�N�N? a�� ?? ???� ?????�?�N�?� ???� ?�?�???�N�??N�N?, N�N�?? ???� ??N??�???? ?�N�??N???N????????? N�?�?? N????�?�?�???� ?�??N?N? ???????� ?�N�??N???N????�N? N�?�N�??????N?. ?s?�?�N?????????N?N� ????N?N? ?�?�???�???????�?� ???�?? ?? ??????N? ???�N????�?�, ?????????� ?? ?YN�???????�?�?????? ??N� 10 ???�???�?�N�N? 1615 ???????� N�?�?�N�?�N??�?� ?�N�??N????�?? A�N?N�N�????N�N? ???????� ?? ??N�?????�N�?�N�?�N�N? ????N?N�?�N?N�????, N�N�???�N� ??N�?????�?�N�N? ?????�???�N?N??� ?�N�??N??? ?? ????N�????A�. ?? ???�?�?�?�: A�?Y??N?N�????N? ??N� ???�?�?? N??????� N??????�?�N????�: ???� N�???�N????? N�?�, ????N�??N�N�?� ???�?????? ???�N�?�N??�?�???�??N?N? ?? ???�N? ????N�????, ???? ?? N�?�, ????N�??N�N�?� ?????�?�??N� ??N�????N�??, ?????�NZN� ??N�?�???? ??????N????�N�N? ?�?�???�??, N?N�N�????N�N? ???????� ?? ?????�N??�?????�N�N?N?N? ??N??�???? ?????�N?????N?N�N????? ?? ??N�???????�?�????N?????. ??N� ??N�?�????N?N�?�???�N??�?? ?�N�??N????�?? ???�N?N�?�??N�?� ???�?�??N? ?Y?�N�???????? ?? ?sN�?�N???N�?? ??N?N�??N�??????????, ??N� ???�N?N�?�??N�?� ???�?�N????????� ?????�??N�N? ???? N??�???????? ??N�N????� N? ?????????? N?N�??N�????N�, ?� N? ??N�N??????? N?N�??N�????N� ?????�N? ??N� ?sN???????N???N????????? ???�???�?�?� ???? N�?????? ???�N?N�?�, ?????� ???�N??? N�?�?�?�?� ??????N�?�NZN�N?N?. ?? ?? N�?? ?�?� ??N�?�??N? ??N�?????�?�N�???�?�?? ???�N????? ???�???�N?N�???????�??, N�N�???�N� ??????N�?? ???� N�?�N??�?�N?N? ???�????N???N�N? ??N�?�?? ?? N?N�?�N�?� N?N�???? ???�N?N�?�??. ?? N�?�???�?� ?????�?????�N??�?? ???? [?�N�??N????�??], N�N�???�N� [??????] ?????�?�?? N??????? ??N????�N�?? N�?�N� ?? ?? N?N????�?�??N�N� ???�?�?�N� ?????????�???? ?�N�??N????�?? ?? ?s?�???�??N�?�, ???�?? ?? ???�?�?�N� ??N?N�??????N�N�, N�?�?? ?? N????�N�N?????N�, NZN�??????N�?�N?????N� ?? N??????�??????N�N�, N? ??N�?�?????? ?�???�?�?�??N�?????�????N?, ?????????� ???�?�??N? N????�???? ?�N???N?N� N?N?????N�N?N?N?. ?z????????N�?�???�?????? [???�?�??] ?????? ???�N? N?N???????N�?????�??????N?N�???�. ?�N�???? ??N�???????�?�?????�?? ??N� ??N??????�???�???�?�?? ??N� ???????� ??N� ???�?�???????? ?? ??N�?????�?�N�???�?�??, N�N�???�N� ??????N�?? ???� ???�N???N� N??�N??? ???� N????�?� ??N�??N�?�N???N?N�N? ??N� ?? N�??N�??????N�N� ???�?�?�N�, ????N??�??N? ???�?�???�N�?�?�?? ?�N�??N????�?? N??????�??????N�?� ???�N?N�?� ???� N�N�?????�N�, ???�?�N� ?????? ???�?�?�???�?�??N� ?�N�?�?? ??N� ????N?N????�N�?�?�N?N?N�?? ?�??N�?�?�?? ?? ??N�N?????N� ?�NZ???�??. ??N� N�?�?�N�?�N??�?�??, N�N�???�N� [??????] ?????�?�?? N??????? ???�?�?�????, N??????�??????N�?� ?? ???� ???�?�???�?�????N�?� ???�?�????????, N�N�???�N� ???� ??N�?????�??N??�?? ?? ????N�?????� ??N�????N?????N�?�?�N???N�N� N�?�?�??N�, ???� ???�???�?�?? ???????�????N� ???????�N�??????. ???? ??N�?????????�?�?? ??N� ?? ???�N?N? NZN�??N???????N�??NZ, ?? ?????????� ?????? ?�N???N?N� N?N?????N�N?N?N?, ?�???�?�?�N?N�???? ??N� ??N� N?N????� ?? ???�N??�??N? ?�?�????????????N? ??N�?�????N�?�?�N?N?N�??N? ?????�?�??N� ??N�??N�??????N�N?A�.
?�N?N�?�??N????� ???�N�?�?? ?????�?�???????? N???N�N�?�???�????N? ???�N�???????�?�N??????? ?????�??N�??N�????N?N�?? ???�?? ??N�????N???N�?�?�N????? N????????????????? ?�???�????, ???????????� ?�?????�N�N�?� ?�N�??N???N??????� ??N�?�????N�?????????�N�?�?�?? ???�N�?�N�?�?�??N?N? ?? ???�N�???�??N�?�N?N�????, ??N�?????�N�?�N�?�?�?? ??????N�N???N??????� ?�???�?????�, ??????N????�?�?? ???????�N?N�N?N? ?? ???�N�?�N??�?�N??�??N?N? ?? N??????? N??�?�?�. ???�???�N?N�??N�?? ??N?N�??N�???? XIX ???�???� ??. ?�. ?�???�?�?� ??N�???�N�?�?�N�, N�N�?? A�?? ????N�?�N?N�????N?N�N?N� ?s?�???�??N�?� ???� ?�N�?�?? N�?�?????? ??????N�N???N??????? N??�??N???, ?? ?�???�?�N� ????N�??N�???? ???� N�?�???�?� ?�N� ??N�????N? ?�N�??N????????�A�. ??????N?N?N�??????????N�??, ?�?�N�???�N�??????N�??, ??N�?�N�?�????????N�??, ?Y??N�?�????????N�??, ????????N�??????N�??, ?�???�???�-????N�?????�????N�??, ?�?�N�?�N�??N?N??�????N�?? ?? ???????????�, ???????????� ??N�N??????� N????�??N�??N�?�N??????� ???�N? ???�N? N�?�?????�???? a�� ?� ???�??N? N?N�?? ??N?N� ?�N�??N????�, ??N�??N??�???�????N�?� ????N�?�N�N? ???? ??N�?�?????�?�?? ??N�??NZN�????N??�?? ??N� N?N�N�?�??N�! ??N�N�?�??N�, ??N????�, ???? N??�?????�?? ???�???�N?N�???????? ?????�N?N????????? ????N?N�?�-N�?????�??N�?????� ?�????N�?�??N�?� ?Y???�N?, A�?�N�??N????� ??N�??N??�?? ?�N�?� ???? ??N�?�???�?�????N? ?YN?N?N�???? ?? ??N??�?�?? ???� N?N�???? ?�?�???�?� N�?�??N?N??�, N�?�?? ?????�N?????. ?Y??N??�?�????N???N?N? ???� ?Y???�?�N?N??� ?? ?Y????N?N�N??�, ?????? ??N�?????�N??�?? N�N????� ???�?�???�????N?N�N? ?? N�N�N??????�NZ?�???�. ?z???? N?N�N�?????�?? ????N�?????�a��A�
?� ??N�??N???N??????? ???�N�?�??N�?�?�N??????? N????�??N�?� N???. ?????????�?�N? ?? ?s?�???�???�N�-?Y???????�N?N????� N�??N�???????�?? ??N�?�??N?N�?�????N�?�?�?�?? ??N�N?N??�???? ??N?N�?????�??N?N�???� ?? ????N�?�N�??N�N�, ???�?? ??N�?�?????�?? ???�???�???�?�?� ?�?�?�??N�??N�??N�N�, ?�N�??N??? ????N�?????�. ?�??N� ?????�N??�?�N??????� ??????N??�?????� N�N�?�???�, ???�???????� ?? 1850-1856 ????.: A�…??N�?????� ???�????N�???�???? ??N�?�?�?????�??N�?� ????N�?????� ?????� ?�?�????????N????????? ?? ?�N�??N???N????????? ?�?????????�N�?� ?????????�?�N? ?�?�????????N????????? N? ?�?�?????? ?? ???�?�?�N�?�?� N????�??N�?�, N??�?�???� N?N�??N??� ???�??N?N�?????? ???� N�?�N�???????? ??N�?�????N�?�, ???� ????N�??N�???? ?�???�??N�N�???? ?�N??????�???? ?�N�?�?? ???�??????N??�????: «??N?N� ????N�??N�?????�?? ?�N�N�???????�?????? ?????????�?�?? ?�???????�????????N�, 1796″. ?�???�N?N? ?�?� ???�N�???????�??N?N? ???�????N�???�??N�?� ???�??N�N� ?????????�?�N? ???�N�N?N??�????N�?� (1770) ?? N??????�N�???????� ?�????N�?�N�?� ???�N�?�?�N? (1787). ??N�??N????� N�?�???�?� ?�N�?�?? N????�N?N�???�?????????�???? ??N�??????N�??????N�N� N�N?N�??N�???? ?? N?N??�???�?�. ??N�N�??????N�?� ??N?N�??N�???????? ???�N�?�?�?� XIX ??. ???�?�N�???�NZN� N�?�?????�???? ?�.?zN??�?�????????N�?�, ?�. ???�???????�, ?s. ?�?�????????N?????????, ??. ?�?�???�N�???�?�?�????N�?�, ?�. ???�???�?�N? ?? ??N�N?????N�, N�N??? ???�??N� ?? ??N�?�???�??N� ???�?�???�?�?? N?N�?????? N�N?N�??N�?�???? ?�N�?� N? XVII ???�???�A�.
?Y??N??�?� N�?�?�???�?�?� ?Y???�N?N??? ?? ??????N�?� XVIII ??. ???�N?N????� ????N?N�N�?�?�?????�???????? ?????�?�N�???�?�N�N?N? ??N�??N�?�N?N???N? ?�?�???�?�???�N�?�. ?? N�N�?? ??N� ??N????�?�N�?�? ???????�?�N????? N�???????�?? ?s?�???�???�N�-?Y???????�N?N????????? ?�?�???????�?????????�, ?? ???�N�?�N?N�???� N??�?�????N�N� ?�?�???�?�???�N�???? ?�???�N?N? ????????N? N????????????�NZN�N?N? ?�N�??N????� ????N?NZN�??????N�, ???�?�?�????????N� ?? ?�?�????????N???????. ?z?????�???? ?? 1820 ??????N? ?? ????N�?????� ??N?N�?�?�??N?N? ???� ?�???�?�?� 70 ?????????? ?�N�??N???. ?? ?? 1878 ??????N? ?????�N?N??????? ??N?N??�?�???????�N�?�?�N? ????N�?�???� ?�??N�??????????N� ???�N�?�N�??N??�N??�N� ??N??� ??N?N�?�??N????�N?N? ?�N�??N???N??????� N??�??N??? ?s?�???�??N�?�: ???�N�?�?�??, ??????????N�??, ?�?�?�?�N??�????????N�??, ?�?�N�N�?�?�?�??N�, ???�?�??????????N�??, ??N?N�?�N�??????N�??, ??N�?�N�?�????????N�??, ?�?�N�????N??????�, ?�?�????N�??????N�??, ????N??�??????N�??, ?sN???N?N�????N??????�, ?�?�????????N??????�, ????N?N??�??N??????�, ?�N????�N??�????N�??, ??N?N???????N??????� ?? ?s??N?N�?�N�?????�, ?? N�?� ?? ?�???�N?N?????N?N�???� N???N?N�??N??�?? ?? N????�N??�????N�N� ?�N�?�???�N�. ?�N??�?? ??N� ??N�?????�N�???�?? ?�???�??????N?NZ N�?�?????�??NZ, N�?? ???�, ???? ?? ?Y?�N�N�N? ???�N???N�N? ??N� ???�N�?�N�????N?N? ??N�???�?�N?????, ?�N??�?? ????N�?�N�?�N?????. ?????� ??N?N�?�?�N�N?N? ?????�?�????N�N?, N�N�??, N??????�?�N????? ??.?�?�NZ??, A�N�???�N????? ???� ?�N�N�?�??????N??????? ???�?�???�??N�?� ?�?�N�??N�?????�???? ???????�?? N?N�?� ?�??N� N? N�?�?????? N�?�?????�???�?? [?�?�????????N???????]A�. ?? N????�?�N? ???�?? N??? ??N??�?? N??�?�?�???�??????N?N�N?NZ ????N�??N????????? ??N?N??�?�???????�N�?�?�N?, N�N�?? ???? ???????? ???� ????N�, ?????�NZN�?�N? ???�????N? N�N?N?N??????? ??N??�N�????, ???� ?????�?� N??�??N?N??�?�N???N�N� ??N�???�?????�??????.
???? ??N� ??N�???�N�?�?�?? ???????? ????N�???????? ?�?�??, ?�?�?�???????� ??N�??N????� ?? ???�?�N�?� ??N�??N????�, ????N�??N�N�?� ?�N�?�?? ?�???�N?N? ?�N??????�?�N????? ???? N???N??�??N?N�??N?. ?? N?N�?? N??�?� ?�N????�N� ???�N? ??N�?�N�?�???????? a�� ?? N�N�?�????N�?�N??????? a�� N�?�N?N????�?� ?? N?N???N??�?� ?�N�??N??? ?? ?�N�??N???N?????N� ????N??�?�?�?????? ????N?N�??N�?????? N�?�N?N�?? ?�??N�????N�. ?? ?????�???? ?�N????�N� ??N?N?N�??N�N?N?N? ?? ???�?�N????�?� ??N?N�?�N??�N?N�?????�, N�N�???�N� ????????N?N�??N�N? ?? ?�??N�?????� ?�?�???�???????? a�� ?? ??N????�??????, N? ???�?�?�?�?�?�N� ?s?�N?N�???�N?N???????. ???�?? ??N�???�N�?�N�N?N?N? ?? ?s?�????, N�N�???�N� N�?�?�???�N�?�N�N?N?N? N? A�???�?�????A� ?�?�????????N?????????. ?�N�?? ???�?? N?N�????N�? ?�?�??N? ???�N?N? ????N� a�� N?N�?? A�??N�???�????N? ??N� ????N�N? ?? ???? ????N�N?A�! ?�N�?�??N�?�??N�?� ?? ?????�??N?N???N�?�, ????N�???????� ??????.

?�??N? ?????�N�??N?N???

Об Авторе

Похожие материалы

2 комментария

  1. stroivopros.ru

    К крепости легко подъехать на машине, район города называется Карантин. Эта крепость когда-то была одной из самых больших мощных цитаделей Европы.

    Ответ

Оставить отзыв

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *